Veterinary B-Ultrasound Apparatus to Detect Abnormal Ovaries of Cows

High-definition veterinary B-ultrasound machine

Veterinary B-Ultrasound Apparatus to Detect Cow Ovary Rest

Ovarian inactivity is associated with estrus and is characterized by the absence of large follicles, absence of a corpus luteum, and the presence of multiple small follicles less than 4 mm in diameter.

cow ovaries resting

Veterinary B-Ultrasound Detection of Ovarian Cysts in Cows

Follicular cysts of the bovine ovary are characterized by large anovulatory structures that persist at various times in the absence of a corpus luteum and interrupt the normal estrous cycle. Although cysts have traditionally been defined as follicular structures 25 mm or larger, more recently the diagnosis of ovarian follicular cysts is based on diameters greater than 16 or 17 mm. Cystic ovary, ovarian cyst, and cystic ovarian degeneration are terms synonymous with ovarian follicular cyst. This condition prolongs the time interval from calving to conception, causing economic losses to the dairy industry. The macroscopic and ultrasonographic appearance of multiple follicular cysts in the same ovary is shown in the figure below.

Ultrasonic contrast chart of bovine ovarian sac

Detection of Granulosa Cell Tumor by Ultrasound in Bovine

Although ovarian tumors are rare in dairy cattle, granulosa cell tumors are common. Granulosa cell tumors are characterized by unilateral ovarian enlargement greater than 10 cm in diameter. The surface of the ovary can be smooth or rough lobulated. Behavior in cows can range from asexual to hypersexual. In some cases, the heifer will develop udders and lactation. The ultrasonographic appearance of a granulosa cell tumor is shown below.Granulosa cell tumors are usually heterogeneous and some parts may be echogenic while others may be anechoic.In some cases, areas of calcification or necrosis may be found in the tumor stroma
(A), and a fluid-filled space (or cavity) (B)

bovine granulosa cell tumor image

Veterinary B-Ultrasonic Differential Diagnosis of Bovis Luteus

It is important to correctly distinguish ultrasound images that resemble the corpus luteum. In the figure below, in order to avoid misdiagnosis of the structure of the corpus luteum and the placenta, ovarian abscess or transverse section of the uterus, see the figure below:

Sonographic difference between placenta and corpus luteum

The difference between ovarian cyst and corpus luteum

The difference between bovine uterus and corpus luteum

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