Urinary protein is positive to rule out kidney disease

□Cui Kai, Laboratory Department, Rehabilitation Hospital, Xuchang Central Hospital

Urinalysis is to check and analyze various components contained in urine, such as white blood cells, red blood cells, etc., to determine whether the examiner has a disease, and to provide a basis for diagnosis and treatment. So, what does a urine test check for?

Usually, urine examination mainly includes urine routine examination, urine HCG examination and urine complement determination, etc. Urine routine examination is the most common. Routine urine mainly checks urine color, pH, transparency, white blood cells, red blood cells, protein, urine specific gravity, cast, sugar quantification, etc., and checks for various diseases based on this.

Urine color Routine urine tests usually check the color of the urine. The color of urine is determined by the pigments in the body. Under normal circumstances, the human body’s pigment discharge is relatively stable. If you drink too much water, the urine you pass will appear lighter in color. The color of urine is associated with many diseases. For example, cholestasis and liver disease can cause the urine to turn yellow.

Urine properties Urine routine will also check the urine properties. Under normal circumstances, the color of human urine is colorless and transparent. After a long period of storage, the color of urine will become cloudy. In terms of pH, normal urine is slightly acidic, with a pH range of 4.6 to 8.0, with an average of 6.0.

Urine sugar quantification Normal urine sugar quantification is negative and contains a small amount of glucose. If the urine sugar content is too high, it may be diabetes.

Urinary protein Normal urine contains negative protein, and the amount of protein excreted by the human body through the urinary tract every day should be less than 150 mg. If it is greater than this value, the urine protein will be positive, which may be a problem with the kidney of the urinating person.

Urinary casts Normal urine contains very little blood protein, no casts, or only very few clear casts. If there is a cast in the urine, it can reflect the condition of a nephron, which may be a signal of kidney disease.

According to the routine urine examination items, the diseases are screened, which generally include the following types:

Kidney diseases are checked for kidney diseases, mainly observing indicators such as color, protein, occult blood or red blood cells, specific gravity, and pH. Abnormalities in such indicators indicate that renal function may be compromised.

Diabetes Diabetes Screening for diabetes mainly observes indicators such as pH, ketone bodies, sugar, urine specific gravity, and urine protein. By detecting these indicators, it is possible to diagnose whether there are complications, organ damage, ketosis, etc.

Urinary infection Urinary infection is checked, mainly observing indicators such as color, turbidity, nitrite, occult blood or red blood cells and white blood cells. If bacteria cause a urinary tract infection, the urine can contain red and white blood cells and change the color or turbidity of the urine. Possibly positive for nitrites.

Other diseases To check other diseases, mainly observe indicators such as color, urobilinogen, urine rubin, pH, and urine specific gravity. When these indicators increase, suggesting that there may be jaundice.

Urine HCG examination is generally used to check the chorionic hormone contained in women’s urine, so as to judge whether they are early pregnancy.

Urine complement determination is generally used to determine whether the urine contains complement C3, and it is mostly used to assist the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome in clinical diagnosis.

Various factors may interfere with the urine test and affect the accurate results of the urine test. When the urine test results are abnormal, further tests can be taken to avoid misdiagnosis.

Edit: Chen Jing

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