Massive pressure in the deep sea: Why are fish okay?
The deep sea is an extremely harsh environment for most living things. At a depth of 100 meters, the pressure of the water has reached 10 atmospheres, which is 10 times higher than that at sea level. At a depth of 2,000 meters, the pressure is 200 times that of the ground. In such an environment, most lung-breathing organisms, including humans, cannot withstand the pressure and are crushed. And the confined space of some metal structures is also difficult to keep intact here.However, surprisingly, somedeep sea creatures,in particularwhaleAnd some fish can move freely in the deep sea without being troubled by pressure.
whaleIt is one of the best among the wonders of the deep sea. They can move on the seabed at a depth of thousands of meters without being restricted by pressure.This is thanks towhaleSpecial respiratory system.whaleWith collapsible lungs, they can expel all the air in the lungs, leaving nothing behind. when diving,whalestore oxygen from the air in the blood andmusclein order to prolong the oxygen supply time. also,whaleYou can also lower your ownheart rate, temporarily blocking blood flow to certain parts of the body, further prolonging the duration of oxygen.This series of adaptation strategies makeswhaleIt can easily handle the high-pressure environment of the deep sea.
So how do other deep-sea fish cope with the enormous pressure?deep sea creaturesMost of their bodies are composed of water, and water is difficult to compress, which provides a certain guarantee for their survival in the deep sea. also,deep sea creaturesIt no longer relies on gas-filled cavities such as lungs and swim bladders. Instead, they have evolved some specialized structures and adaptation strategies.
MarianalionfishIt is an advanced creature in the deep sea, the deepest can reach a depth of 8200 meters. It doesn’t have cavities like normal fish, because the high pressure destroys the molecular structures in the cavities, such as the proteins that make up the organism.To adapt to this environment, MarianalionfishThere are gaps in the bone that may help it equalize the difference in internal and external pressure. also,deep sea creaturesThe body contains aTrimethylamineN-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule that prevents other molecules such as membranes and proteins from breaking down under high pressure.MarianalionfishHumans contain large amounts of this small molecule, allowing them to survive high-pressure environments.
Overall,deep sea creaturesIt effectively copes with the enormous pressure of the deep sea through adaptive physiological and anatomical structures, such as foldable lungs, interstitial bones, and high content of small organic molecules. These adaptation strategies not only protect their body structure, but also maintain normal physiological functions and achieve survival in the deep-sea environment.
Other extreme conditions in the deep sea: cruel and special living environment
In addition to the enormous pressure, there are many other extreme conditions in the deep sea, making the deep sea an extremely cold, dark and food-scarce environment.Imagine the deepest place in the world’s oceanmariana trench, the deepest depth is more than 11,000 meters, and the average depth is also more than 8,000 meters. This abyss is deep enough to completely submerge Mount Everest, leaving no hair exposed. In such depths, due to the extremely high water pressure, light cannot penetrate, the temperature is extremely low, and the supply of oxygen and food is extremely scarce, it is conceivable how difficult it is for living things to survive.
MarianalionfishIt is one of the creatures most adapted to this environment in the deep sea.Its eyes are in the shape of a display, in fact, becausemariana trenchThe depths are completely devoid of light, a world of darkness.Marianalionfishhave completely lost the function of vision, but they have developed other sensory abilities to adapt to the lack of lightLife。
In addition to the dark environment, the deep sea also has extremely low temperatures. At a depth of 1,000 meters, the water temperature may have dropped below 4 degrees Celsius, much cooler than at sea level.somedeep sea creaturesTo deal with the threat of low temperature freezing by containing antifreeze proteins in the body. These antifreeze proteins slow down the rate at which ice crystals crystallize and prevent ice crystals from causing damage to cells and tissues.
deep seafood chainAlso very simple and fragile.Since light can’t reach the deep sea, plants can’tphotosynthesis,lead tofood chainThe starting point disappears.deep sea creaturesdependent on deathorganic matterand fallen leaves for food,food chainVery short and sketchy.Somedeep sea creaturesSpecial survival strategies have also evolved, such as huge mouths and stomachs, to be able to swallow more food at a time, in response to food scarcity.
However, fordeep sea creaturesresearch is very difficult.Due to the great pressure will affect thechemical reactionrate, and cause metabolic problems in the organism, so thedeep sea creaturesIt’s very challenging to bring to the surface for study.In addition, due to the particularity of the deep sea environment, makingdeep sea creaturesDifficult to observe and study, we still have a lot to discover about them.
To sum it up,deep sea creaturesThey are able to survive extreme environments because they effectively cope with the enormous pressures of the deep sea through adaptive physiological and anatomical structures, such as foldable lungs, interstitial bones, and high levels of small organic molecules. also,deep sea creaturesOther adaptation strategies have also been developed, such as altered perception in response to blindness, antifreeze proteins, and adaptation to food scarcity.deep sea creaturesThe research will provide us with important clues to better understand the origin and evolution of life on Earth.