How good is Liu Yong’s father, Liu Tongxun, an important minister of the Qing Dynasty?

Everyone is familiar with the mention of Liu Yong. He is well-known both at home and abroad for being a clean and honest official. He also wrote good calligraphy and was honored as “the prime minister with thick ink, and the flower with light ink”, and his father Liu Tongxun is tens of millions of times better than him. How good is he?

1. Liu Tongxun was born with a golden key in his mouth, and his background is very good.

On December 23, the thirty-eighth year of Kangxi (February 11, 1700), Liu Tongxun was born in Ningqiang Prefecture, Hanzhong Prefecture, Shaanxi. His ancestral home was in Daliu Village, Dangshan, Jiangnan, and his ancestors were farmers. His first ancestor Liu Fu moved his family to Zhucheng County, Qingzhou, Shandong during the Hongzhi period.

Liu Tongxun’s great ancestor Liu SizhiStudying hard and passing the exam, Yi Xiangsheng (a scholar), his family became richer and richer.

Liu Tongxun’s great-grandfatherLiu Tong was a tribute student, and he was selected as a vice-ranking candidate, and became a talent directly selected by the emperor.

Liu Tongxun’s grandfather, Liu Bixian,During the Shunzhi periodScholarsIn the third year of Kangxi’s reign, he dealt with Wu’s customs administration. He worked as a Fengzhi doctor and a member of the Guangxi Division of the Ministry of Household Affairs.

Liu Tongxun’s father, Liu Wei,A virtuous and famous official in the Kangxi Dynasty.Kangxi DynastyScholars, when Liu Tongxun was born, his father Liu Wei was serving as the magistrate of Ningqiang Prefecture. He was a magistrate of Changsha. He successively served as a magistrate of Ningxia Middle Road, a prefect of Pingyang, a deputy envoy of Tianjin Dao, an envoy of Jiangxi Province, and a chief envoy of Sichuan. Liu Qingtian”, “a good official who is convenient for the people”.

Liu Tongxun was born in such a family background. He can be described as a famous and scholarly family. Therefore, he grew up with good education and superior living conditions since he was a child, and he has a vision and pattern that ordinary people do not have.

2. Liu Tongxun was a 17-year-old Zhongjuren and a 24-year-old high school Jinshi, which is really rare in the history of the Qing Dynasty.

Throughout the Qing Dynasty, there were very few people like Liu Tongxun who passed the examinations and Jinshi at such a young age. In the Qing Dynasty scientific examination, the average age of Zhongju candidates was about 31 years old, while the average age of Jinshi candidates was about 34 years old. Some people even passed the Juren examination until they were 94 years old. For example, Xie Qizuo, who was 7 years older than Liu Tongxun, was admitted to Juren 14 years after Liu Tongxun passed away. Liu Tongxun is ahead of his age no matter whether he is an examiner or a Jinshi.

It is worth mentioning that both Liu Tongxun’s father and grandfather were Jinshi, that is to say, Liu Tongxun’s family has three Jinshi, which is rare in the whole history.

3. Liu Tongxun is a clean and upright official, famous all over the world, and is praised as “never lose his integrity throughout his life”.

Liu Tongxun served as an official in the court for 49 years. After the Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong dynasties, he became a good example of officials with integrity and self-discipline.

Liu Tongxun’s grades were so outstanding that he was selected as a scholar by the Imperial Academy as soon as he was a Jinshi, and served as an editor. So what is a concubine? Shujishi also has another name called “Shuchang”, which belongs to the emperor’s close ministers. The position is not something that ordinary people can afford, and only those with potential are eligible.

Liu Tongxun has a flexible mind and logical thinking, and he is well organized when facing difficult court affairs. He is responsible for drafting imperial edicts for Emperor Yongzheng, and shoulders the special task of explaining scriptures for Emperor Yongzheng. In other words, he is the emperor’s teacher. It played a very important role in the decision-making. He was a queen talent that everyone envied at that time, and his development prospects were immeasurable.

Liu Tongxun’s outstanding ability and talent and virtue won the appreciation of Emperor Yongzheng.

Emperor Yongzheng was a good emperor who cherished talents. Based on the principle that those who can do more work, he let Liu Tongxun be the head of the South Study Room, which is an important place for talent storage. The poet and writer Wang Shizhen, the famous poet Zhu Yizun, the writer Fang Bao, and the classics Shen Quan, who is deep, and Dai Zi, a brilliant astronomer, all worked here.

Because of Liu Tongxun’s outstanding performance, Emperor Yongzheng soon asked Liu Tongxun to walk in the study and became the assistant of the prince and grandson. Then Emperor Yongzheng appointed Liu Tongxun as “Zhan Shi” to take charge of the affairs of the queen and the prince’s family. Liu Tongxun was very serious about his tasks and did a good job in all kinds of affairs.

When Qianlong arrived, in 1736, the 25-year-old Qianlong promoted the 36-year-old Liu Tongxun to be a cabinet bachelor. From the second grade, Qianlong also asked Liu Tongxun to follow the bachelor and water conservancy expert Ji Zengyun to Zhejiang to learn seawall engineering and water control technology. In the second year, Qianlong promoted Liu Tongxun to be the Minister of the Ministry of Punishment, and became the deputy chief of the Ministry of Punishment of the Six Ministry, from the second grade.

Liu Tongxun has a straightforward personality and dares to speak out directly. This kind of person was appreciated by Emperor Qianlong at the time. Emperor Qianlong trusted him very much and let him give full play to this aspect. As soon as Emperor Qianlong came to the throne, he appointed Liu Tongxun as the censor of Zuodu of the Metropolitan Procuratorate, who was responsible for supervising every move and every word and deed of court officials.

Liu Tongxun lived up to Emperor Qianlong’s expectations. He was upright and selfless in the process of exercising power, completely abandoning his own interests, and impeached Zhang Tingyu, the great man of the court at that time, and Niu Hulu Neqin, the grandson of Ye Bilong and Minister of the Ministry of War. Liu Tongxun’s move Shake the ruling and opposition parties.

He participated in Zhang Tingyu’s selfishness in promoting talents. In order to fight against Ertai, he helped many members of the Zhang clan and those from Tongcheng, Anhui, to enroll in the imperial examination, which caused folk rumors that “Tongren received the state’s grace and became an official. Those who are the best in the world.”

During the impeachment, Liu Tongxun was filled with righteous indignation, and he spoke righteously to Qianlong: “Shangshu Neqin governs the Ministry of Officials and the Ministry of Household Affairs. Neqin is in power alone and never listens to the opinions of the people. Please criticize the emperor and let him reflect and correct his mistakes. “

Emperor Qianlong was worried about finding an opportunity to show them some color. Facing Liu Tongxun’s performance, he was overjoyed, and immediately dismissed them. Let the ministers read it, and Liu Tongxun’s name became popular in the court and the public.

From then on, Liu Tongxun became the brightest star in his official career. He was often praised by Emperor Qianlong, and he was a holy family throughout his life.

4. Liu Tongxun is a workaholic, and his water control ability is very good.

Due to the affirmation of Liu Tongxun’s ability, Emperor Qianlong appointed Liu Tongxun as the governor of water transport in 1746. From then on, Liu Tongxun began to focus on supervising the construction of river channels and controlling floods, and made outstanding achievements.

1. Liu Tongxun made a move to treat the flood.

In the thirteenth year of Qianlong (1748), in Shandong, Liu Tongxun and Gao Bin, a university scholar, inspected the disaster relief situation. He gave fire-like enthusiasm to the work, and he personally surveyed the river, day and night. Once, Liu Tongxun observed that the canal swelled more violently than usual, so he acted decisively and immediately requested dredging to divert the river by dredging Liaocheng to divert the water from the canal to the sea; Afterwards, the height of the two dams at the Fengkou River in Yizhou was raised, so that the river water was well blocked, preventing impending dam breaks and floods, and benefiting thousands of lives.

With outstanding achievements, Liu Tongxun was promoted to Minister of the Ministry of Industry and concurrently served as a bachelor of the Imperial Academy, and was later transferred to Minister of the Ministry of Punishment.

2. Liu Tongxun worked hard to fight corruption and made outstanding achievements in the process of water control

In the eighteenth year of Qianlong’s reign (1753), Liu Tongxun and Shang Shu Celeng discussed to inspect the second water reduction gate of Jiangnan Shaobo Lake and the breach of Gaoyou Cheluo Dam. He found that the accounts of the river officials were suspicious and suspected of falsification, so he secretly investigated and found out the accounts. It also found that some officials were not doing their jobs properly, and the river treatment was delayed many times due to corruption. He was very angry, so he played it to Emperor Qianlong according to the facts.

Soon, Gao Bin, the governor of the river channel, and Zhang Shizai, the co-governor of river affairs, were dismissed, and all officials involved in embezzling money were severely punished.

Not long after the Xun River breached in Tongshan Xiaodian, a group of corrupt officials surfaced, and Liu Tongxun was caught. Faced with some people’s dredging, Liu Tongxun remained unmoved. Bin executed, very happy. In order to prevent similar incidents from recurring, Liu Tongxun personally stationed in Tongshan to supervise Saihe until the project was successfully completed.

When managing the overflow of the Yellow River in Sunjiaji, Tongshan County, Fullerhe, the governor of the river affairs, was withdrawn due to his inability to work, and Liu Tongxun took his place temporarily, so that the management of this section of the Yellow River could be completed normally.

When the Yellow River was raging in places like Xiangfu and Yangqiao in Henan Province, it was urgent to build dams after the water receded, but the officials in that section of the river course had already slowed down their work on the pretext of lack of hay for dam repairs.

After Liu Tongxun heard about it, he felt suspicious, so he visited in private, only to find that hundreds of vehicles loaded with bundled hay had been put aside, and people beside the vehicles were crying.

Liu Tongxun immediately went to inquire, and learned that the officials refused to accept the bribe because they failed to ask for it. Liu Tongxun immediately detained those officials and decided to put them to death. If the governor and others hadn’t pleaded for mercy, these people would have died. After clearing the obstacles, all the hay was purchased in one night, and the project was successfully completed in just over a month.

Later, Liu Tongxun was ordered to dredge the canal waterway several times, and each time he managed it very successfully, which won the appreciation of Lord Qianlong.

5. Liu Tongxun was responsible for compiling “Pictures of the Western Regions” and made achievements

In the 21st year of Qianlong (1756), Qianlong decreed to compile “Pictures of the Western Regions”, and named Liu Tongxun, Fu Heng, Chu Tingzhang, He Guozong and others to be responsible for this matter.

Liu Tongxun went all out for this important task. He was not afraid of natural dangers, and personally led the surveying and mapping team to every corner north of the Tianshan Mountains, and even went as far as the Chui River and the Talaqi River west of Lake Balkhash, obtaining a large number of field surveys and mapping. The information was written in the book “Pictures of the Western Regions”, which later became the blueprint for the map of Xinjiang.

6. Liu Tongxun pardoned his crimes because of his meritorious deeds, and he will be kind to future generations

Liu Tongxun’s son Liu Yong showed his prominence precisely because of his father’s relationship. Liu Yong participated in the general examination and palace examination as an envoy, and was the second Jinshi in the second class.

In October of the 20th year of Qianlong (1755), Liu Tongxun was sent to the Ministry of Criminal Affairs and imprisoned for handling military affairs except for mistakes. His son Liu Yong was also implicated and punished.

Because Emperor Qianlong thought of Liu Tongxun’s many meritorious service, he finally released their father and son.

In the thirty-first year of Qianlong’s reign (1766), Liu Yong embezzled the treasury and silver due to his neglect of the county magistrate of Yangqu, which made Qianlong furious. He was dismissed according to the law and sentenced to death. For the sake of his father, he was exempted from grace, and found an opportunity to send him to the army to perform crimes and meritorious deeds.

Later, Liu Yong was reappointed because of his father Liu Tongxun, and was awarded the prefect of Jiangning. Under the education and influence of Liu Tongxun, Liu Yong was also very successful in his career and life. He was a fair and honest official, and his conduct was praised by the people. He was called “Bao Zheng”.

7. Liu Tongxun mourned after his death

On November 16th, the thirty-eighth year of Qianlong (1773), Liu Tongxun hurried to the Forbidden City to go to the morning shift as usual. Due to the accumulated fatigue, when his sedan chair was outside the Donghua Gate, Liu Tongxun could no longer support it. He fell headlong into the sedan chair, and the person who lifted the sedan chair found that the center of gravity of the sedan chair was not right, so he quickly got off the sedan chair to check, and found that Liu Tongxun’s eyes were closed and his breathing was weak.

When Qianlong heard the news, he was very anxious, and hurriedly sent the imperial minister Fu Long’an to bring medicine to treat him, but it was too late.

On the day of Liu Tongxun’s funeral, Emperor Qianlong went to condolences in person, wept bitterly, and said to the officials: “I have lost a share!” One of them was awarded posthumously as Taifu and given the posthumous title Wenzheng. This posthumous title is very powerful. Since the Tang Dynasty, countless literati have dreamed of getting it. Anyone who has this hobby will be admired by literati, such as Fang Xiaoru, Fan Zhongyan, Zeng Guofan and so on.

One year after Liu Tongxun’s death, when he moved to the ancestral grave of his hometown, civil and military officials within 20 miles along the way all went to hang sacrifices in front of the coffin, which was a rare scene among the late ministers at that time.

Emperor Qianlong, who always liked to boast but seldom praised others, highly praised Liu Tongxun, saying: “He is sensitive when things happen, his nature is vigorous, he has the style of an ancient minister, and he will never lose his integrity throughout his life.”


Liu Tongxun’s life was brilliant. From the time he was born, he was determined to be extraordinary. The pursuit of his ancestors paved the way for him to struggle. Liu Tongxun’s own character and morality were also the key to his success. In the next era, Liu Tongxun’s integrity, self-discipline, and upright character are undoubtedly a ray of light in the dark. Everything he does can cater to the holy will, making the emperor value him very much, and giving him opportunities to perform again and again. Liu Tongxun grasped every opportunity with his heart, tried his best to do his best, and finally won a successful life. He not only succeeded himself, but also trained his son to become a famous politician, calligrapher, painter,
Writers and historians can be described as a great man in history.

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