After Cao Pi usurped the Han Dynasty, why didn’t the courtiers loyal to the Han Dynasty go to Liu Bei?

In October 220 AD, Cao Cao, king of Wei, died and was succeeded by Cao Pi. At that time, various forces were pushing Cao Pi to take action. Those subordinates of the Cao family were also thinking about how to celebrate with each other and how to get a share of the new dynasty. So some ministers forced him to persuade Han Xiandi Liu Xie to follow the old practice of Tang and Yu and give up the throne to King Wei. Therefore, Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty Liu Xie announced his abdication and abdicated the throne to Cao Pi. Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty did this to save his life. After all, Cao Pi had completely emptied himself.

Facing the abdication of Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty, Cao Pi pretended to decline, and only agreed to accept it after three abdications. On this basis, Cao Pi officially usurped the Han Dynasty and established the Cao Wei Dynasty. And this is undoubtedly a fatal blow to the forces loyal to the Han Dynasty. However, after that, almost no people loyal to the Han Dynasty went to the Shu Han. The reasons are mainly divided into the following points.


As far as the first point is concerned, this is because the power of the Han Dynasty has been hit many times, and it has tended to die out within Cao Wei. It is true that as early as when Cao Cao coerced the emperor to order the princes, there were forces loyal to the Eastern Han Dynasty within Cao Wei. After all, the power of the Han Dynasty for hundreds of years still exists, and the power of the Han Dynasty should not be underestimated. After Cao Cao pressed Liu Xie step by step, these Han powers fought against Cao Cao many times.

For example, in 199 AD, Liu Xie was dissatisfied with Cao Cao’s monopoly on power, so he secretly issued an imperial edict. In the Yidai Zhao, Liu Xie ordered Dong Guiren’s father, the chariot general Dong Cheng, to unite the righteous men in the world to try to kill Cao Cao. Dong Chengsui conspired with Zuo General Liu Bei, Changshui Xiaowei Zhongji, Yilang Wu Shuo, Pian General Wang Zifu and others. Before he could act, Liu Bei set off to fight because of Yuan Shu’s northward march.

In the first month of the fifth year of Jian’an (200), the matter of Yidaizhao was revealed. Dong Cheng and others were all killed by Cao Cao, and the pregnant Dong Guiren was also strangled. For another example, in 214 AD, Empress Fu’s plot to ask her father Fu Wan to kill Cao Cao was revealed. Cao Cao threatened Liu Xie to depose Empress Fu, and wrote an edict to depose Empress Fu on Liu Xie’s behalf. Then, Chi Ji, the imperial historian, was sent to take the imperial edict, and together with Shang Shu Ling Hua Xin led troops to surround the palace to search for the queen. . Empress Fu hid in the wall of the palace, but was dragged out by Hua Xin.

In this regard, Cao Cao executed all Empress Fu and her family. Through these actions, Cao Cao, Cao Pi and his sons wiped out the power of the Han Dynasty inside Cao Wei. Therefore, after Emperor Xian of the Han Dynasty abdicated, naturally almost no one went to join Liu Bei.


As far as the second point is concerned, this is directly related to Liu Bei killing someone by mistake. The person Liu Bei killed was Yong Mao. According to historical records, during the Three Kingdoms period, Yong Mao was Liu Bei’s master book. After Cao Pi usurped Han and became self-reliant, Liu Bei also had the idea of ​​proclaiming himself emperor. However, Yong Mao, who clearly expressed his opposition to Liu Bei’s proclaiming emperor, was killed by Liu Bei. In this regard, in the opinion of many historians, Liu Bei’s killing of Yong Mao who opposed his proclaiming emperor not only showed his ambition to proclaim himself emperor, but also exposed his lack of tolerance. And this caused the talents who originally wanted to defect to the Shu Han to naturally change their minds, that is, to continue to stay in the Wei State.

Furthermore, Liu Bei killed Yong Mao by mistake, which completely chilled the hearts of the heroes in the world, because an emperor would not listen to opposing remarks, and even killed loyal ministers, who would want to take refuge in such a monarch? This obviously also paved the way for the lack of talents in the late Shu Han Dynasty.


Finally, as far as the third point is concerned, it is because the Shu Han is weak in strength and lacks the possibility of supporting the Han Dynasty. As we all know, Cao Pi usurped Han in 220 AD. This year, Liu Bei’s general Guan Yu launched the Battle of Xiangfan. As a result, because of being attacked by Cao Wei and Soochow, Guan Yu was defeated and killed, and the land of Jingzhou was also occupied by Soochow. For the Shu Han who lost excellent generals such as Jingzhou and Guan Yu, it naturally became the weakest of the three kingdoms of Wei, Shu and Wu.

As a result, although Liu Bei played the banner of Kuangfu Han, but because of his lack of strength, those who were loyal to the Han were reluctant to come and join him. On the contrary, staying in the powerful Cao Wei obviously has better development prospects. For example, Liu Ye, who is also a descendant of the Han Dynasty, chose to assist Cao Cao and Cao Pi, and was treated favorably by Cao Wei. Another example is Xun Yu, a counselor, although he has the Han family in mind, he is unwilling to join the weak Liu Bei.

In addition, in 221 AD, after Liu Bei ascended the throne and proclaimed himself emperor, he sent troops to attack Soochow in the name of revenge for Guan Yu, and Zhang Fei was killed by his subordinates. In 222 AD, Liu Bei was defeated by Soochow General Lu Xun in the Battle of Yiling, resulting in the loss of the elite forces of the Shu Han. At this time, the Shu Han is even in danger of perishing, which will undoubtedly dispel the idea of ​​other talents going to Yizhou. Based on the above reasons, after Cao Pi usurped Han, Shu Han failed to seize the opportunity to absorb talents from Cao Wei.

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